A novel method for texture-mapping conoscopic surfaces for minimally invasive image-guided kidney surgery

Ong, Rowena; Glisson, Courtenay L; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica; Simpson, Amber; Danilchenko, Andrei; Lathrop, Ray; Herrell, Duke S; Webster, Robert J; Miga, Michael; Galloway, Robert L
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 11 (8), pp. 1515–1526, 2016
A novel method for texture-mapping conoscopic surfaces for minimally invasive image-guided kidney surgery



Organ-level registration is critical to image-guided therapy in soft tissue. This is especially important in organs such as the kidney which can freely move. We have developed a method for registration that combines three-dimensional locations from a holographic conoscope with an endoscopically obtained textured surface. By combining these data sources clear decisions as to the tissue from which the points arise can be made.


By localizing the conoscope’s laser dot in the endoscopic space, we register the textured surface to the cloud of conoscopic points. This allows the cloud of points to be filtered for only those arising from the kidney surface. Once a valid cloud is obtained we can use standard surface registration techniques to perform the image-space to physical-space registration. Since our methods use two distinct data sources we test for spatial accuracy and characterize temporal effects in phantoms, ex vivo porcine and human kidneys. In addition we use an industrial robot to provide controlled motion and positioning for characterizing temporal effects.


Our initial surface acquisitions are hand-held. This means that we take approximately 55 s to acquire a surface. At that rate we see no temporal effects due to acquisition synchronization or probe speed. Our surface registrations were able to find applied targets with submillimeter target registration errors.


The results showed that the textured surfaces could be reconstructed with submillimetric mean registration errors. While this paper focuses on kidney applications, this method could be applied to any anatomical structures where a line of sight can be created via open or minimally invasive surgical techniques.